Rules Regulating Foreign Currency in Russia – Advokat Vidar Borgersen

If you are planning on visiting any country, it is always helpful to be familiar with the rules governing the import and export of currency and other securities. In Russia these issues are regulated by Federal Law from 10.12.2003 No.173-FZ “On Currency Regulation and Currency Control” and Customs Legislation.

Foreigners may bring with them into the country foreign currency, Russian rubles, as well as travelers’ checks and other securities without limitation.

If a foreign citizen upon entry into the country has in his or her possession a total sum greater than 10,000 US dollars, including currency, travelers’ checks and other securities, he or she must specify the value of each on a customs declaration and submit it to customs authority at the border crossing.

A foreigner may, when exiting the country, take with him or her all currencies which were declared upon entering the country or those which were transferred to Russia during the period of stay. However it is incumbent on the foreigner to prove the values of each that were either in his possession at the time of entering or transferred to him while in Russia. In order to do this, a foreigner will need at the moment of departure from the country to provide documentation regarding the transfer of currency and or other assets to Russia or submit the customs declaration which was completed at the point of entry into Russia. In this event, a declaration at the point of departure is not required.

In addition to foreign currency and or Russian rubles totaling that which was declared upon entry or transferred to Russia, a foreigner is permitted to export from the country the amount of currency which is not in excess of 10,000 dollars US. Customs will not require supporting documentation that this additional currency had been previously imported or transferred to Russia. To depart from the country holding currency in excess of that amount is strictly forbidden.

Upon departure, if a foreign citizen is holding 3,000 dollars US or less in any currency, he or she is not required to declare this at Customs. If however the amount is greater than 3,000 dollars US, the entire amount is subject to written documentation at Customs upon exiting from the country. The customs declaration most also show declared values for travelers’ checks, if the total value of such which is being taken out of the country is greater than 10,000 dollars US. Securities which are being taken out of the country must be declared regardless of their total value. In this case, as was noted earlier, it is permissible not to declare at the point of departure that which was declared upon entry into Russia, including currency, travelers’ checks and other securities.

The conversion of foreign currency, Russian rubles and US dollar travelers’ checks are all subject to the official exchange rate which is set by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on the day of declaration to the customs authority.

Advokat Vidar Borgersen


Environmental Laws and How They Can Protect You and Your Property – Advokat Vidar Borgersen

 Environment laws protect our natural resources by regulating businesses that have the potential to impact them. Due to the importance of these laws, the Environmental Protection Agency was formed as a federal agency whose main task is to control and decrease pollution by researching potential hazards, monitoring companies that may cause environmental harm, setting standards of practice to minimize environmental impact and enforcing punishments for those who violate environmental regulations.

Environmental laws control almost every industry in the country in some form. Specific regulations such as the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts serve to protect land owners from environmental and property contamination caused by polluting businesses. The Clean Air Act regulates air emissions from mobile and stationary sources—from cars and trucks to plants and factories.

The Act authorizes the EPA to set and enforce National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect the public from emissions of hazardous air pollutants. Amendments to the Act passed in 1990 gave the EPA the right to force industrial polluters to use technology-based standards to reduce emissions of hazardous substances. Major industrial operations must also obtain operating permits from the EPA before starting up. Companies and individuals who violate the Clean Air Act may face extensive fines and be forced to stop polluting and, if possible, correct any damage they may have caused.

The Clean Water Act regulates discharges of polluting substances into any body of water in the United States. The Clean Water Act makes it illegal to dump any type of pollutant from a point source (pipes, man-made ditches and other similar conveyors) into any navigable body of water without obtaining an EPA permit. While private home owners do not need to obtain a permit as long as they are connected to a municipal water system or use a septic tank, industrial and municipal facilities do need permits. Under the Clean Water Act, the EPA sets wastewater standards for industry and also establishes minimum water quality standards for all surface waters. Again, individuals or companies found to be in violation of the Clean Water Act may be fined or have other penalties imposed on them by the EPA.

When plants and factories create air and water pollution, they negatively impact the health of the people who live in their vicinity and lower the value of properties in the surrounding area. Sometimes, the level of pollutants released are so great, they render neighboring properties untenable. Fortunately, the Clean Air and Water Acts can be enforced to make industrial polluters pay for the damage they have caused and restore the land they’ve corrupted to its original state. If you have been injured or suffered property damage as a result of industrial pollution, you may be entitled to compensation. Contact an environmental attorney from Arnold & Itkin today for a free consultation regarding your case.

Advokat Vidar Borgersen

AUTHOR: Arnold & Itkin LLP

Fighting School Bullying in Court – Advokat Vidar Borgersen

Civil courts are seeing more school bullying cases. Parents are hoping these lawsuits will bring more attention to the seriousness of bullying.

Over recent years, school bullying has been receiving more and more attention from schools and law enforcement. Now it is also receiving more notice from the courts as an increasing number of cases are being taken to the civil court. J. T. and T. C. are one such case. They have filed a $20 million lawsuit against their son’s school district because of the lack of attention and action given to their son. The eighth grade boy was bullied for years before he committed suicide. The boy’s parents filed the lawsuit on the one-year anniversary of his death. They want their actions to increase awareness of the seriousness of bullying. If people are more educated concerning bullying, they will be more likely to report it.

The family attorney of J. T. and T. C. says that he has dealt with almost seventy cases or bullying in the past two years alone. He stated that parents come to him because they do not want the bullying to happen to anyone else. On the other hand, if schools are required to use their funds on lawsuits, that money will be taken away from education. However, something must be done. The parents of the young boy believe that their son’s suicide could have been prevented. They allege that many students and staff were aware of the bullying, but failed to take any action. One video of their son being stripped of his clothing and put in a trash can was even put online. However, nothing was done to protect him and the incident was not reported. The parents of J. C. do not want any other child to be driven to suicide because they feel like there is no other way of escape.

Schools are designed to be a safe place for children to learn and grow, but if school authorities are purposefully ignoring bullying, there is a problem. The effects of bullying can last for years. One-on-one bullying seems to take place more in elementary schools, while group bullying is more prevalent in high schools. Physical bullying involves hitting, tripping, punching, or any other violent act towards a student. Emotional bullying, however, can be just as degrading and can have more lasting effects on the victim. Relentless name-calling, humiliation, insults, and teasing are only some of the ways children hurt other children. Cyber-bullying can be more difficult to discover but can have extremely destructive results. If your child has been a victim of bullying, you should speak with a personal injury attorney for legal advice and help.

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The Legal Status of Parking Space under Condominium Law – Advokat Vidar Borgersen

Condominium is a multilevel building which is built in an area that is divided into sections which are structured functionally, whether horizontally or vertically that constitutes as units in whicheach can be owned and used separately, mainly for housing complemented with common equipment (bagian bersama), common facility (benda bersama) and common land (tanah bersama). Condominium is regulated in the Law Number 20 of 2011 on Condominium (“Law No. 20/2011”).

Land on where the building of Condominium stands is a common land. According to the law, common land is a piece of land used under an undivided common right, which is a Condominium building over it, determined in accordance with the building license.

According to Article 1 point 5 and 6 of Law no. 20/2011 common equipment is part of Condominium that is undividedly owned for common use, in a unified function of a Condominium. The examples of these are foundation, column, wall, floor, block, roof, stair, pipes, electricity system, gas, telecommunication and public area of a Condominium.

Then, common facility is defined as a thing that does not form part of a Condominium, but jointly owned undividedly, for common use. The examples of these are park, landscaping, social building, religious building, playground, and parking space which is separated or integrated with the structure of Condominium building. Accordingly, based on the definitions set out above, of parking space is regarded as a common facility.

Advokat Vidar Borgersen

AUTHOR: Sartika DY Darwis

Hva er en taushetsbelagt opplysning? – Advokat Vidar Borgersen

I offentlige arkiver vil det ofte være opplysninger om enkeltpersoner. Av og til er det opplysninger som de fleste av oss vil ønske å holde mest mulig for oss selv – vi vil ikke at de skal bli kjent for alle og enhver.

Taushetsbelagte opplysninger dreier seg i første rekke om personlige forhold, men kan også være om forretningshemmeligheter og saker av betydning for rikets sikkerhet.

Opplysningene finnes i arkivene fordi det har vært nødvendig for myndighetene å ha dem tilgjengelig i en eller annen sammenheng. Vi har ofte selv gitt myndighetene disse opplysningene. De fleste av oss forutsetter at opplysningene bare brukes til det formål de virkelig trengs, og at de offentlige tjenestemenn og organer som må få kjennskap til opplysningene eller forvalter arkiv med slike opplysninger, ikke bringer dem videre.

Til tross for Arkivverkets formål om at arkivene skal gjøres tilgjengelig for bruk, vil det altså ikke være slik at alle opplysninger og dokumenter kan stilles til disposisjon for alle som ønsker å se dem. I henhold til lovgivning og inngåtte avtaler blir det satt sperrefrister av forskjellig varighet på de deler av arkivene der opplysningene finnes. Hvis det innvilges forsker- eller partsinnsyn, blir det satt strenge betingelser på bruken av opplysningene.

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